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Hip Anatomy

Hip joint is one of the most important joints in the human body. The hip joint is kind of a complicated structure. In this system, there is a ball and a socket type structure that are joined together to provide the needed reflex and motion for the working of a hip. Hip  joint of the structure is located in the head of the femur and the acetabulum of pelvis. By this joint, the lower limb and the pelvic girdle get joined together. This is a one of the weight bearing joints in the human body and for this cause; a huge amount of movement is sacrificed. There are many structures that offer the increased stability of the joint and the neurovascular supply.

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Movements of the muscles of the hip joint

There are a lot of muscle movements in the hip joint. Those are the flexion, abduction, extension, rotation etc. the flexion movement’s degree in the hip depends upon the knee and the hamstring position. If the knee is in the flexed position, this relaxes the hamstring muscles. So in this position the hip flexion is increased. The joint capsule in the hip joint primarily controls the extension of the hip joint. There are many muscles which take parts in the hip movements. Each movement of the hip consists of some of the muscles in the area. below are some of the movements and the muscles which take place in those movements.

  • Flexion: In this movement, the participating muscles are the rectus femoris, iliosoas and the Sartorius.
  • Abduction: The gluteus minimus, the gluteus medius, biceps femoris and the semitendinosus are the main muscles which take part in this action.
  • Lateral Rotation: Gluteus maximus, the Biceps femoris and the deep gluteals are the main muscles.
  • Adduction: Brevis and magnus, Adductors longus, the pectineus and gracillis are the ones that take part in this movement.

Hip Structure

As mentioned above, in the most simplistic term, the hip joint consists of a ball like structure and a socket like structure. Both of them rotate to give the most of the momentum in the hip joint to perform in the safe way. The total of the structure of the hip joint is consists of two parts. Those are the articulating surface and the ligaments.
Articulating:
this is the part where the articulation of the acetabulum and the head of the femur take place. The first one in the joint is a cup like structure or the one that looks like the socket in the lateral side of the pelvis. The femur, due to its hemisphere shape, fits right into the actebulum. The total structure is then covered by the articular cartilage. This cartilage has to bear the weight and for this purpose the cartilage is made thick in some of the places.

The Ligaments:
this is the main part of the hip joint. The main function of the ligaments is tat they work for the increase of the stability of the hip joint. There are the two categories of the ligaments. Those two groups are the Extracapsular and the Intracapsular.

The Extracapsualr:

There are the total of the three these kinds of ligaments that can be placed together with the extracapsular ligaments. those are the:
Illiofemoral:
this one is one of the three ligaments. This is located anteriorly in the ligaments. The origin of the ligament is the illum. The main function of this ligament is to prevent hypertension in the hip.
Ischiofemoral:
this is one of the other remaining two. This is located posteriorly in the human body. The main function of this is to prevent the excessive extension of the femur.
Pubofemoral:
this is the last in the list of the three ligaments. The main function of this is to prevent the extension and the abduction in the hip area in excessive margin.

The Intracapsular:

There is only one ligament that is located in the head of femur. This is a small ligament in comparison to the extracappsular ligaments. the main function of this is to enclose a branch of the oburator artery.

There are also some of the common injuries that occur in the joint of the hips. Those are the fracture to the neck of the femur, the dislocation of the femoral head etc.

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