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Knee Anatomy

A hinge type of a synovial joint, in the most common medial term this is the ideal fact described for the knee joint. The main function of the knee joint is to allow the flexion and the extension of the muscles. A minor degree of the rotation, both the medial and the lateral are also noticed in the knee joints. The extension and the flexion in the knee joint are mainly caused by the articulation in the three parts, the tibia, femur and patella. The stability of the knee join relies very much on the muscles and the ligaments. The main cause behind this is that the knee joint is weak. Knee is one of the most important body parts. Knee helps in leg movement and other specific functions. Knee joint anatomy is referred to at the reflective function in ambulation. As the stability of the knee and pain less motion are vital in preserving daily activities. Most commonly, age, overuse, and may be traumatic injuries can lead to knee structural damage that restricts the proper function. Therefore, a proper understanding of the knee anatomy is necessary to properly detect and treating the knee joint.

knee anatomy

The articulation:

There are mainly two kinds of the articulation that is located in the knee area of the human body. those are the Tibiofemoral and the Patellofemoral. Those are detailed below:

  • Tibiofemoral: This is the main weight bearing articulation of the knee joint portion. This is the medial and lateral condyles of the femur. These parts articulate with the tibia.
  • Palettofemoral: In this articulation, the distal part and the anterior of the femur articulate with the patella. This is the origin of this articulation.

The structure of knee

The knee joint helps in joining the thigh with the leg and comprises of two articulations. One exists between the tibia and femur, and the other exists between the patella and femur. It can be recognized as the largest joint of the human body. The knee is basically a movable trocho-ginglymus that allows extension and flexion as well as a slight external and internal rotation. Although the structure of knee joint has not transformed structurally over millennia, it is susceptible to both sensitive injury and the rising of osteoarthritis.

The Meniscus

There are mainly two types of the menisci available in the knee. Those are the medial and the lateral menisci. The fibro cartilage structures of the knee are C shaped. They are attached to the intercondylar area.  The attachment, the medial meniscus is fixed to the portions of the joint capsule and the tibial ligament. So, if there occurs any kind of damage to the tibial ligament, the meniscus ligament gets torn.  On the other hand, the lateral meniscus is portion that is relatively smaller. This does not have any extra kinds of attachments. Those serve mainly two functions. Those two functions are:

  • They act to absorb the shocks.
  • They function to deepen the articular surface of the tibia. This increases the stability of the joint.

The Ligaments

There are many of the main joints in the ligaments that serve some of the main purposes of the knee joints. The ligaments are detailed below:

Collateral ligaments – This is one of the main ligaments that are found in the knee joints. There are mainly two of them. The two ligaments are like the straps. The main function of the ligaments is to stabilise the motion of the knee. They prevent any kinds of the lateral or medial movements. Those two ligaments are the:

  • Tibial collateral ligament: This is a flat and wide ligament. On the medial side of the knee joint this can be located. This is attached to the medial epicondyl of the femur and this is also gets attached distally to the medal surface of tibia.
  • The fibular collateral ligament: This is the exact opposite than the other one discussed above. This is a thin ligament and also a round one. proximally this is attached to the epicondyle of the femur and this is also attached distally to the lateral surface of the fibular head.

Patellar Ligament – This is also one kind of ligament that is found in the knee joint portion of a human body. This remains attached to the tibial tuberosity. This is a continuation of the quadriceps.

The Cruciate Ligaments – This also the consists of the two ligaments that connect the femur and the tibia. They are crossed by each other in connecting the connection. The cross of the two of the term denotes the origin of the mane of the term “cruciate”. The two ligaments are the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.

Function of knee joint

The knee is considered as one of the most significant joints of human body. It plays a necessary role in the movement such as running, walking, jumping.

The surfaces of knee joint

The knee is an axis kind synovial joint. Knee is consisted of three purposeful compartments: the femoropatellar articulation, the patellar and the lateral and medial femorotibial articulations. The joint is covered in synovial liquid which is comprised inside the synovial membrane known as the joint capsule. The posterolateral corner of the knee is a region which has currently been the theme of transformed research and scrutiny.

Articular bodies

Medial and lateral condyles are tarticular bodies of the femur. These deviate to some extent posteriorly and distally, with the lateral condyle being larger in front.

What kinds of muscles are situated in the knee joint?

The muscles which are responsible for the movement of the knee joint basically belong to either the posterior, anterior or medial section of the thigh. The extensors usually fit in the anterior section and the flexors to the posterior.

Kind of problem knee joints can face

Knee joint can face various kinds of problems. Arthritis is one of the most common problems.


Arthritis is the most common disease in today’s world. Arthritis refers to any kinds of pain, swelling or cramps in muscles, ligaments, bones and joints. The patients suffering from this disease has to undergo a lot of pain. There are various kinds of arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form. Lots of study and research have done to invent the healing methods. Studies have shown that women are the main sufferers of this disease.  Nearly 92% of the women are suffering from osteoarthritis. This disease rises due to many causes. Some of them are age, immune diseases, mal nutrition, unhealthy diet, imbalanced weight, overweight, daily stress etc. It’s very important to know the actual reason.

Medications used for healing problems regarding knee joint

Keyhole surgery can be performed. There are two kinds of keyhole surgery. One is ACL reconstruction and the other is PCL reconstruction.

Keyhole surgery

Laparoscopic surgery, which is also known as minimally invasive surgery, is also called keyhole surgery. It is basically a modern surgical method in which surgeries are done far from their exact situation by means of small incisions (generally 0.5–1.5 cm) somewhere else in the human body.

Taking care of knee-joints?

If someone is suffering from any kind of knee joint problem then the patient must undertake instant treatment. The patients must follow all the suggestions and advices of their doctors. A suffering individual must take proper drugs and therapies to avoid the dangers of hip replacement surgery. So, everyone should take necessary precautions to fight against such risk factors. Proper guidance is also needed to get rid of this disease. Regular check- up is also highly suggested. A victim must take medicines or therapies on regular basis as well.

Articular capsule?

The articular capsule does have a fibrous and synovial membrane detached by fatty deposits. Interiorly, the synovial covering is located on the edge of the cartilage both on the tibia and the femur, but on the femur, the recess helps in extending the joint space.

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